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Improving Thinking and Memory with Smell: Dementia and Olfactory Enhancement

Ever thought about how the scents around you could affect your brainpower? It turns out that exposing yourself to a variety of smells can actually boost your brain's performance and strengthen neural pathways. When you team this up with a balanced lifestyle, it's an affordable and straightforward method to sharpen your thinking and memory that is accessible to everyone.

Woman smelling lavender

You know, one of the common questions I often get asked in my clinic is, "How can I enhance my memory and thinking skills?" It's a good question because there are lots of things that can mess with our cognitive abilities – medications, illnesses, you name it. And while getting forgetful sometimes can be related to getting older, it's important to remember that age alone doesn't necessarily lead to dementia.

What Does Modern Medicine Offer Us for Treating Dementia?

Speaking of dementia, what's the deal with modern medicine and treating it? To be honest, there aren't any strong medical treatments that can flat-out prevent your mind from slipping. The topic of dementia treatment isn't just a nerdy talk among brain experts anymore. With our population getting older, it's something more people are talking about. Big pharma companies are racing to develop new drugs that can actually help with dementia. Sure, there are some new medications out there, but folks are still arguing about how well they actually work. And let's not ignore the real risks that come with these new treatments. The new dementia medications have some serious risks of brain bleed and swelling, not to mention the crazy high prices and the inconvenience of getting them through an IV. There are older medications, but honestly, they're not anything to write home about. And even if they do some good, it's usually short-lived. So, when it comes to tackling cognitive decline, the options in traditional medicine aren't exactly overflowing.

Essential oil dropping from a bottle into a woman's hand

What Else Can Be Done to Prevent Dementia?

So where does that leave us? Well, there are lifestyle changes and complementary therapies that might not only slow down your memory fading but could actually turn the tide. Just recently, I came across this interesting article that talks about using scents – essential oils – to give your brain a boost. What's I like about this new research is that it underscores some of how our brain works and gives us a super simple, budget-friendly, and doable solution for a brain issue where popping pills isn't so easy. Let's dive into this a bit more.

Environmental Enrichment, Dementia and Smell

Let's dig into the connection between your surroundings and your brainpower. We've known for a while that surrounding ourselves with an engaging environment can do wonders for our brain and behavior. One of my top six principles for staying healthy is intellectual stimulation. Researchers have been tinkering around with animals, using sounds and visuals to fire up the brain's adaptability, leading to better thinking and memory. In a similar fashion, olfactory stimulation (scent) has been shown in mice, and now in people, to prevent or reverse cognitive decline. What's nifty is that smells, through the olfactory nerve in the nose, have a shortcut to memory centers in the brain, skipping past the brain's security system known as the blood-brain barrier.

Now, get this: losing your sense of smell can actually be a red flag for some serious brain troubles, like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. These brainy researchers have even spotted a trend – when you lose your ability to smell, it might mean your cognitive game is taking a hit too. They think this could be due to certain memory hubs in the brain shrinking. On a curious note, some folks have been playing around with the idea of "smell training" to bring back someone's sense of smell. While we can't say for sure whether this can single-handedly reverse dementia by restoring your ability to smell (cause and effect can be tricky),

woman smelling flowers

what we do know is that infusing your world with captivating scents can do a lot of good. It can improve word finding and give your decision-making skills a boost, and reduce depression. It’s been shown that using more intricate combinations of smells might even have the power to hit the rewind button on dementia. Believe it or not, there are studies suggesting that surrounding yourself with stimulating scents can physically reshape and reconfigure your brain!

Isn't that something? Your nose might just be the secret key to unlocking a whole world of cognitive enhancements.

The Science Behind Aromatherapy and Cognitive Function

Aromatherapy is not a new concept; its roots can be traced back to ancient civilizations where various aromatic plants were used to promote physical and mental well-being. In recent years, scientific research has shed light on how essential oils can impact cognition. When inhaled, the aromatic compounds in essential oils interact with the olfactory system, which is closely linked to the brain's limbic system - the area responsible for emotions, memories, and behaviors.

The olfactory bulb, a key part of the olfactory system, is directly connected to the amygdala and hippocampus, regions that play vital roles in emotional responses and memory formation, respectively. This close connection explains why certain scents can trigger powerful emotional reactions and evoke memories. By leveraging this link, essential oils are believed to have the potential to influence cognitive functions such as attention, focus, and memory.

New Research on Smell and Cognition

Now, let's dive into the nitty-gritty of a recent study that caught my eye. They were onto something pretty intriguing. So, here's the scoop on how they tackled it.

In the study I came across this week (Woo, et al., 2023), researchers had a go at using essential oils to give thinking and memory a boost. Picture this: they handpicked seven unique essential oils – rose, orange, eucalyptus, lemon, peppermint, rosemary, and lavender. Every night, the participants in the study had the task of selecting one of these oils and setting up a diffuser with a timer for a two-hour aromatherapy session while they slept.

Woman holding a small bottle of essential oil

Now, why did they go for this approach? Well, the aim was to whip up an intervention that was a breeze to follow, available to just about anyone, and was affordable. Plus, they wanted to keep things as uncomplicated as possible, so the participants wouldn't struggle with the diffusers or oils.

I have to say, I'm quite a fan of this study. It's all about keeping things simple, right? No downsides, and literally anyone can give it a shot. The findings were pretty cool: this straightforward intervention actually worked its magic by enhancing the brain's neural pathways which they were able to see with brain imaging, and giving thinking and memory a boost which they tested with cognitive function tests.

Just a couple of thoughts from me on their study design: Firstly, based on my clinical experience, I've found that blends of different oils tend to be more effective in aromatherapy treatments compared to using a single oil. And secondly, their choice of oils seemed to lean more towards what's popularly available rather than oils with established clinical benefits. Since their diffuser setup couldn't handle blends, it could be really interesting to rerun the study with a blend like peppermint, Scott's pine, basil, and rosemary. These four oils are known in the aromatherapy world for their potential to improve cognitive function – they're like brain boosters!

Actually, you can give it a try yourself and see if it makes a difference!

Essential Oils for Cognitive Enhancement

Let's break down the dynamic world of essential oils and how they can give your brain a turbo boost.

Peppermint (Mentha piperita):

The invigorating scent of peppermint oil has been linked to improved cognitive performance. Inhaling this oil can have a stimulating effect on the mind, increasing alertness and combating mental fatigue. Its refreshing aroma can provide a boost during times of intense focus, making it an excellent choice for study sessions or work tasks that require sustained attention.

Scott's Pine (Pinus sylvestris):

The woody and crisp aroma of Scott's Pine oil can contribute to cognitive enhancement. This oil is associated with promoting mental clarity and focus. Inhaling the scent of Scott's Pine may help create a grounded environment conducive to concentration. Its earthy notes are believed to encourage a sense of stability, which can be beneficial when tackling complex cognitive tasks.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis):

Renowned for its memory-boosting properties, rosemary oil is a powerful ally for cognitive function. Inhaling its invigorating scent can enhance alertness and mental clarity. Rosemary is particularly noted for its potential to improve memory-related tasks, making it an ideal choice for those seeking to optimize their learning and recall abilities.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum):

The sweet and herbaceous aroma of basil oil holds promise for cognitive enhancement. Basil is known for its potential to reduce mental fatigue and improve focus. Inhaling the scent of basil may help clear mental fog and promote a sense of mental vigor. This oil's uplifting properties can contribute to an improved cognitive state, aiding in tasks that demand sustained attention.

Application of Essential Oils for Cognitive Enhancement

There are also a few different ways that essential oils can be used. If you are trying this yourself you could try one of the three methods listed below.

Aromatherapy Diffusers:

Aromatherapy diffusers are invaluable tools for utilizing essential oils to enhance cognitive function. By diffusing these oils, you can infuse your env

Essential oil diffuser

ironment with their aromatic benefits. This method is especially effective in creating an atmosphere of focus and clarity in workspaces, study areas, or wherever cognitive tasks are undertaken.


For immediate cognitive benefits, direct inhalation is a simple yet effective technique. Placing a few drops of your chosen essential oil on a tissue and inhaling deeply can provide a quick boost of mental alertness. This approach is convenient for moments when you need to shake off mental fatigue swiftly.

Topical Application:

Applying diluted essential oils to specific areas, such as pulse points or temples, can offer sustained cognitive support. Dilution with a carrier oil is crucial to prevent skin irritation. Topical application allows for gradual absorption of the oil's aromatic compounds, contributing to prolonged cognitive enhancement.

Considerations and Precautions

As with any wellness practice, using essential oils to enhance cognition should be approached with care:

Quality Assurance: Ensure you're using high-quality, pure essential oils to reap their full benefits. Authentic oils retain their therapeutic properties and are more likely to yield the desired cognitive effects.

Personal Responses: Each individual responds differently to scents. Experiment with different oils to discover which ones resonate best with your cognitive needs and preferences.

Dilution and Sensitivities: When applying essential oils topically, always dilute them to avoid skin sensitivities. Additionally, be mindful of any allergies you might have to specific oils.

Professional Guidance: If you have underlying health conditions or are pregnant, consult a healthcare professional before incorporating essential oils into your cognitive enhancement routine.

Rosemary plant


Exploring the potential of essential oils to enhance cognitive function is an exciting journey that blends ancient wisdom with modern understanding. Peppermint, Scott's Pine, Rosemary, and Basil oils showcase the diverse scents that can positively influence cognition.

These potent elixirs from nature possess the power to unlock the hidden chambers of our minds, igniting memory, enhancing focus, and rekindling mental clarity. Through the captivating dance of scents, essential oils open a portal to a realm where traditional solutions fall short, offering a tantalizing path toward cognitive renewal.

While essential oils stand as interesting players in this landscape, they harmonize best within the grand symphony of holistic well-being, which you can read more about in my 6 principles page. Embrace these fragrant gifts from nature, and embark on a journey where memory is a tapestry, focus is a masterpiece, and your cognitive fire is reignited.


Woo, C. et al. (2023). Overnight olfactory enrichment using an odorant diffuser improves memory and modifies the uncinate fasciculus in older adults. Frontiers in Neuroscience.

DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2023.1200448


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